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The Role of Pemmican in the Fur Trade and Exploration of North America

Pemmican was a staple food among the indigenous people of North America long before the arrival of Europeans. It was made by drying meat, usually bison, and then pounding it into a powder. The powder was then mixed with melted fat and berries, creating a high-energy food that could be stored for long periods of time. Pemmican played a crucial role in the fur trade and exploration of North America, becoming an essential food for traders, trappers, and explorers.

The Fur Trade

The fur trade was a major industry in North America from the 16th to the 19th century. European traders exchanged goods such as guns, knives, and blankets for furs, which were in high demand in Europe. The trade took place mainly in the northern regions of North America, where the indigenous people, who were skilled at hunting and trapping, could obtain furs from animals such as beavers, otters, and foxes.

The fur trade was a difficult and dangerous business. Traders and trappers had to venture into the wilderness for months at a time, often facing harsh weather, wild animals, and hostile indigenous people. They needed a food that was lightweight, easy to carry, and could provide them with the energy they needed to survive. Pemmican was the perfect solution.

Pemmican was a nutritious and calorie-dense food that could be easily transported in small packages. It could be eaten as is, or mixed with other foods such as flour or sugar to make a more substantial meal. Traders and trappers would often carry large quantities of pemmican with them on their expeditions, ensuring that they had enough food to last them for weeks or even months.


Pemmican was also an essential food for explorers who ventured into unknown territories in North America. In the 18th and 19th centuries, explorers such as Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson, and Lewis and Clark set out to map and explore the vast wilderness of North America. These expeditions were often perilous and could last for years, with explorers facing harsh terrain, extreme weather, and a lack of food.

Pemmican was a lifesaver for these explorers. It provided them with the energy they needed to keep going, even in the most difficult conditions. For example, Lewis and Clark’s expedition to the Pacific Northwest in 1804-1806 was made possible in part by the large quantities of pemmican they carried with them. Without pemmican, they may not have been able to make it to the Pacific and back.

Decline of Pemmican

The fur trade and exploration of North America had a significant impact on the indigenous people who lived there. The demand for furs led to the overhunting of many animal species, and the introduction of European diseases devastated indigenous populations. As a result, the traditional way of life for many indigenous people was disrupted.

With the decline of the fur trade and the forced relocation of many indigenous people to reserves, the demand for pemmican also declined. Today, pemmican is no longer a staple food among indigenous people, and its use is limited to certain traditional ceremonies and events.

Pemmican played a crucial role in the fur trade and exploration of North America. Its high-energy content and long shelf life made it the perfect food for traders, trappers, and explorers who needed a lightweight, easy-to-carry food that could sustain them in harsh conditions. Although the demand for pemmican has declined over the years, its importance in the history of North America cannot be overstated.

The Benefits of Medical Spa Treatments: What You Need to Know

Taking care of oneself should always be a priority, and medical spa treatments offer an excellent opportunity to do so. A medical spa is a facility that offers various traditional spa services and medical procedures. This article discusses the benefits of medical spa treatments and offers helpful information to guide your decision-making process.

Benefits of Medical Spa Treatments

Physical Benefits

  1. Skin Rejuvenation Medical spa treatments such as facials, chemical peels, and microdermabrasion can help rejuvenate the skin, making it look more radiant and youthful. These treatments can also improve skin texture and promote skin cell turnover.
  2. Reduction of Fine Lines and Wrinkles Fine lines and wrinkles can be reduced with medical spa treatments like Botox and dermal fillers, providing a more youthful appearance.
  3. Acne Treatment Acne-prone skin can benefit from medical spa treatments like chemical peels, microdermabrasion, and laser therapy, which can help improve the skin’s appearance.
  4. Weight Loss Medical spas offer weight loss programs designed to help individuals achieve their desired weight through customized treatment plans.
  5. Pain Management Medical spa treatments such as massage therapy and acupuncture can help alleviate chronic pain caused by conditions like arthritis, fibromyalgia, and migraine headaches.
  6. Improved Blood Circulation Medical spa treatments like massage therapy and acupuncture can help improve blood circulation, which can lead to reduced inflammation and pain.

Mental and Emotional Benefits

  1. Stress Reduction Medical spa treatments like massage therapy and acupuncture can help alleviate stress, leading to a more relaxed and calm state of mind.
  2. Boost in Self-Confidence Looking good can help boost self-confidence, and medical spa treatments like facials, chemical peels, and Botox can help improve one’s appearance and confidence.
  3. Improved Sleep Medical spa treatments like massage therapy and acupuncture can help promote relaxation, leading to improved sleep quality.
  4. Positive Impact on Mental Health Medical spa treatments can provide a positive impact on one’s mental health, helping to reduce anxiety and depression symptoms.

How to Overcome Flying Spa Covers and Hot Tub Covers

After a wind storm, many a spa owner has found themselves wondering “where did my spa cover go?” If this happens to you and you are one of the lucky ones, you could find your spa cover or hot tub cover at least a quarter mile from your home. If not, you’ll have to look into buying a replacement that simply will not fly away next time.

Your spa or hot tub cover is likely to fly away because when wind comes at your spa, some of it will hit the side of the cabinet and have to go around. As air is pushed around the spa, some of it will be forced to go over. Once it breaks over the top of the rigid foam cover, it will set off a bit of ripple or swirl action which begins to suck upward on its rigid surface. This ripple or swirl action is what will eventually pull the foam cover up off the spa. The cover doesn’t need to move too much, because once a big enough gap is created, this will allow some air to get in underneath ‘” which is all it takes to have your spa cover or hot tub cover flying away into the distance.

The good news is that spa supplies dealers are now offering spa covers and hot tub covers with various solutions that prevent these from flying away. For instance, it is possible to obtain spa covers and hot tub covers with stronger straps. Alternatively, you could go for a design that does not offer a rigid surface for the wind to lift on. This is a major improvement on the typical rigid foam spa covers that fly simply because they make a good wing.

You may also choose a spa cover design that does not resemble a wing, and which does not require straps or truck ratchets to secure it to your spa. Avoid spa covers or hot tub covers with a rigid foam board that rests across the top of the spa. Instead, go for one whose bottom will rest right on the water surface thereby helping to keep the water warm. This will also remove the vacuum that builds up pressure which could cause the spa cover or hot tub cover to pop off. In order to resist lift and deflect the strongest winds, go for a dome shaped flexible spa cover, rather than a flat and rigid one.

Source: Barrington Back and Body

The Therapeutic Effects of Acupuncture

The stress level of each individual at present is so high that sometimes some people cannot take it which leads to drug addiction or suicide because stress is too hard to cope for them. Stress is very dangerous. Most people who suffer stress also have anxiety attacks, difficulty in sleeping, and even when eating. There are numerous ways to relieve you from stress. You can take anti-stress pills; attend therapeutic classes, exercise and listen to mellow music, read books and so on. You can also go to a spa and get a therapeutic massage. However, they claim that the best way to relieve stress is through acupuncture.

Acupuncture is a Chinese medical procedure. The Chinese believes that acupuncture cures the body and the internal organs that may be in pain. A person may be hesitant to try acupuncture therapy since some people are afraid of needles. As you can imagine, acupuncture involves a couple of needles that will be pricked through your skin where there are stress areas that need to be targeted. Stress will not only affect you, but also the people around you. When you are so stressed out, you become very impatient and irritable at times. Sometimes you can not help it and you get annoyed easily by other people.

The needles used in acupuncture are very small and very slim. It will not really hurt you. You may feel a little pinch, just like when you are bitten by a very tiny ant, but will immediately go away in less than a second. The needles pass through your skin and target the nerves on that area where you feel pain. The nerves then send signals to the area of the brain where there are natural painkillers that are released by it. Acupuncture also promotes body circulation. Body wastes are also removed through acupuncture. The tingling sensation you get when you undergo acupuncture therapy is a good sign that the therapy works.

Acupuncture is considered one of the best therapeutic and healing processes you can do for your body. This is good because you do not need to take any chemical substance in your body; instead all you need is simple painless pricking of needles. This is a healthy way to improve your coping with stress and cleanse your body as you undergo the therapy. This might be a bit costly because you will need experts to do this for you. When the wrong nerves are pricked by the needle it may cause serious damage to your health. Make sure you get your money’s worth.

Is it Time for My Spouse and I to Seek Counseling?

This is a question that is asked quite a bit. After getting married, couples will sometimes drift apart, or have to deal with problems that arise. When this happens, one or both will wonder if they should seek marriage counseling. Sometimes one of them will want to seek counseling and the other one will be totally against it. So the question is, should you see a marriage counselor?

Here are some things to consider and then the two of you can make the final decision. Before we take a look at things to consider, allow me to first say that there is nothing wrong with seeking counseling when it can possibly save your marriage! 

Have the Two of You Been Fighting for a Long Time?

The first thing you should look at is the fighting. Have the two of you been fighting about certain things for a long time and can’t seem to move pass them? Then seeing a marriage counselor may help you get pass the problem and show you how to move on.

Did Your Spouse Cheat, but You Still Want to Save Your Marriage?

If your spouse cheated, but you still want to save your marriage, then you should definitely consider seeking marriage counseling. Counseling will help you move pass what happened and help you forgive your spouse and build your marriage up again.

Does Your Spouse Have Anger Problems?

If you or your spouse has anger problems and takes it out on the other one, then counseling should definitely be considered. The two of you are only hurting each other worse and if you don’t get some help before it’s too late, you may end in divorce.

Do You Feel Your Spouse Doesn’t Love You Anymore?

If you feel that your spouse doesn’t love you anymore and doesn’t want to be intimate with you anymore, counseling may be a good idea. With the counseling, the both of you can get to the bottom of things. If your spouse doesn’t love you anymore, then talking it out in counseling will help the both of you move forward as tough as it may be!

Healthy Eating Habits

We are all familiar with the saying “you are what you eat.” Well as true as it is, we not only are what we eat, but how we eat. When and how we eat affects our enjoyment of the food we eat. Healthy digestion and assimilation of our food is effected by our food choices, our attitude and environment of consumption, both external and internal. Have you ever wanted a good meal and eaten a bad one, then walked away still feeling hungry? Somehow unfulfilled, even with a stomach full of food? Can you remember what you ate for dinner last night? You may have forgotten, but perhaps you didn’t notice to begin with. Bringing more attention and thought to our meals may help us to make healthier food choices, and experience the joy of our food.

The process of digestion is an involuntary function (one which we do not consciously direct) and is governed by our autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. The autonomic nervous system governs all of the involuntary functions in our body. In order to accommodate our wide variety of needs, it has two distinctly different yet interdependent sub-systems within in called the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division.

The sympathetic division is “on alert”; it is the yang or action nervous system. This division is responsible for our ‘flight or fight’ mechanisms. It becomes our dominant system when our mind sends signals to our body to mobilize it to action, in response to a perceived threat or danger, real or imagined. In our modern society it is often called into play in response to fear, excitement or anticipation. You can tell when you are sympathetic dominant when you are breathing more shallow and from higher in your chest, your pulse quickens, you have a sensation of excitement (butterflies) or ‘tension’ deep in your stomach and throughout your muscle structure. You may also be perspiring (especially your hands) even though your surroundings are not too warm, or you may feel fidgety, generally ‘hyper’ and perhaps, at times, less comfortable inside. When you are stressed, your body says run, and your digestive system shuts down.

The parasympathetic division is a more yin or nurturing nervous system. It is responsible for quite a different set of physiological responses and is called into play when we make time for rest, and relaxation. It favors assimilation, repair and regeneration and is dominant when our breathing is slower, more rhythmic and from lower in our chest and abdomen. There is a decrease in muscle tone, the abdomen is relaxed and comfortable, with no sense of tension in it.

If we are to digest our food properly and to derive full nutritional value from it we need the nurturing, parasympathetic division. How conscious are you of your state of mind and body before, during and after your meals? This awareness is important to proper digestion and health as any other aspect of your lifestyle. The following mindfulness practices help us to use our nurturing nervous system so we can better enjoy and utilize our food.

Source: Arlington Acupuncture

Life Coaches Specializations

Here is a list of interesting and fun life coaching specializations that you may not have considered.

Wellness Coaching

Wellness coaches work with their clients in areas related to health and wellness. As a wellness coach you may assist your clients with a step-by-step plan for living a more healthy lifestyle. For example, you may help your clients set goals around proper diet and nutrition, or support them in maintaining a fitness regimen.

Sales Coaching

Sales coaches work with their clients in areas related to salesmanship and communication. As a sales coach your clients will hire you to motivate and inspire them to new heights in their sales careers. Sales coaches are hired by individual clients as well as groups and corporations and help their clients set goals, improve selling techniques and develop effective personal marketing strategies.

Transformational Coaching

Transformational coaches work with their clients in areas related to personal achievement. As a transformational coach, your clients will hire you to help them gain clarity about their goals and dreams through a process of self-discovery. You will also assist your clients with mapping out a specific plans of action for turning those dreams and goals into a reality.

Tips and Considerations

As a life coach, you do not necessarily need to have the same level of professional experience as your clients. Your expertise is inspiring and motivating them to utilize their skills and abilities to achieve the goals they have set for themselves.When choosing a life coaching specialization, don’t forget to take into account your personal interests and goals. If you are passionate about an area outside of those mentioned here, you may be able to carve out your own niche and develop a coaching practice based on the needs of those clients. Read the next post on how Chicago hypnotherapy is helping many individuals battle their life problems.